There’s nothing cursory about this NAD precursor.
Most of us don’t spend much time thinking about our cells. You may remember from an early biology class that cells are the “building blocks of life.” They are the smallest form of life capable of replicating themselves and carrying out essential functions in living organisms. All of our energy, our immunity, our sense of comfort, and well-being begins with our cells.
In spite of all that, most people don’t even think about their cellular health until things start to go wrong. We feel tired faster, find physical activity more difficult, notice our sleep patterns change, and that our skin doesn't look quite as young as it used to.
Modern science, however, has taught us that getting older doesn't have to feel that way. It's common knowledge now that eating healthy, finding a good exercise routine, getting a good night's rest, and quitting smoking can all encourage our overall health at any age. But there is still a lot more that can be done, and it all starts with our cells.
Why We Need
One way to keep cells healthy is to give them what they need to function properly. And one of the most important ways of doing that, is with a coenzyme called NAD (pronounced en-aye-dee). This molecule may be famous within the scientific community for supercharging our cells, but very few people outside of those specific fields even know what NAD is.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme discovered over 100 years ago by scientists studying fermentation. NAD does two essential things in the cell. First, it aids in the process of turning nutrients into energy—a crucial part of cellular metabolism and the beginning of every energy-driven process in our bodies. Second, NAD is known to boost the activity of sirtuins, an essential protein used by the cell. Sirtuins are credited as the key to life expectancy because when they are active and working hard, they help support overall cellular health.
NAD is critical to our bodies, but the best things in life usually come in limited supply. NAD levels lower as we age, and our mitochondrial functions decline as well. There are a lot of studies right now that find evidence of a direct link between lower NAD levels and the health-related problems of aging in mice. Mice aren’t people, obviously, but such promising findings help guide future research in humans.
Many of these studies center around a unique nutrient known as nicotinamide riboside (NR). Scientists already acknowledge NR is a safe and efficient means of increasing NAD. Now researchers all over the world are using NR to test the potential of increased NAD to improve human health as we age.
How NR Helps
NR helps make NAD because it’s a precursor. Precursors are molecules used in chemical reactions to create another compound. NR is a building block that helps create the end product: NAD.
Think of it like making a cake. Your ingredients (salt, sugar, flour) are “precursors” to a cake. You can have these components separately without a cake, but you can’t make cake without using some ingredients.
Similarly, there are specific precursors to NAD that cells can use to make NAD. Precursors that a person can even presumably seek out and use as supplements to increase NAD levels. One of the most promising supplements in this space is TRU NIAGEN®, the only known patented and FDA safety-reviewed form of NR on the market today.*
Of Increasing NAD
There are other NAD precursors as well, starting with the B3 vitamins. Yes, there are plenty of B vitamins, each providing benefits to the body, but the vitamins that form the B3 family are the ones responsible for increasing NAD levels. However, there are three different forms of the B3 vitamin and each produces NAD with varying degrees of success.
First, there is niacin (nicotinic acid), also known as NA. This was the earliest form of B3 discovered and for many years was the go-to vitamin for high cholesterol. Unfortunately, as a supplement, niacin can cause an uncomfortable skin flush.
Nicotinamide (aka niacinamide or NAM) is the second of the B3s and is also a precursor to NAD. It does not cause the skin flush, but it can react negatively with sirtuins, known as the “longevity genes,” causing them to slow down the all-too-good work they do.
The third B3 vitamin is nicotinamide riboside. NR boasts the double whammy of not causing flushing and getting along great with sirtuins. This gives it an edge over the other vitamin B3s because it increases NAD and can kickstart sirtuins that support overall cellular health.
Other technical precursors to NAD are tryptophan (yes, the sleep-inducing amino acid found in your Thanksgiving turkey) and nicotinamide mononucleotide, or NMN. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that aids in the production of niacin, which is a NAD precursor. However, the process that needs to occur for tryptophan to produce niacin is long and drawn out, making tryptophan a less effective pathway to NAD creation. NMN is a nucleotide derived from ribose and nicotinamide and is undergoing tests for its efficacy in increasing NAD levels in humans.
Of course, our bodies naturally produce NAD in a variety of ways. Eating certain foods, exercising, and even fasting are some of the natural ways to increase NAD. But excessive food intake and alcohol consumption are just some of the many reasons adults may find themselves lacking in NAD.
No matter which pathway or which precursor is used, the science is clear: NAD levels are vital to long-term health. We’re living longer now than ever before and, in a world where life spans have increased, focusing on how to improve that quality of life is essential. It’s extraordinary and encouraging to find that when it comes to aging better, we are much more empowered now than we were just a few years ago.
Now that we've identified the pathways to increasing NAD production, we're no longer at the mercy of our bodies’ declining output of this critical molecule. Anyone bold enough to use this knowledge and provide their bodies with the necessary supplements can fight back against aging.
*At the time this article was written.